Geo-Joint: Pretty Lakes in Pink

There are some lakes, like Tahoe, that can be crystal clear. Even those rare bodies are increasingly plagued by incursions of pollution or sediment that mar the clarity to some extent. And most lakes don’t come close to that kind of visibility, especially in summer when warmer water is so conducive to the growth of algae. Green, then, is a … Read More

Geo-Joint: Making Yourself at Home on Mars

There are a thousand and one places to go on this planet, and each dictates its own set of preparations for a successful trip. Even so, terrestrial destinations all have some similarity when compared to leaving this planet entirely and heading for another. That kind of excursion will require a good bit of time cooped up in a tin can … Read More

The Anniversary of a National Park: The Grand Canyon

The Grand Canyon became a national park on February 26, 1919. President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that established the park under the National Park Service (NPS). The canyon was not the first park to receive this honor. As early as 1872, Congress made Yellowstone the nation’s first national park. At that time, however, the National Park Service (NPS) did … Read More

The Growth of United States Presidential Power

  BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT The United States has three branches of government: legislative, judicial, and executive. Each branch plays a different role in American democracy. The legislative branch includes the Senate and the House of Representatives. These two houses of Congress make the country’s laws. The judicial branch includes the Supreme Court. The Court’s nine justices interpret and make rulings … Read More

Copernicus’s Cosmic Revolution

In his study of the heavens, the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle placed Earth at the center of the universe. Since then, his geocentric model became the official doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church. Most scientists at that time used a geocentric model to explain a planet’s apparent backward, or retrograde, motion. However, a geocentric view made retrograde motion extremely complicated … Read More

Why We Celebrate Martin Luther King Day

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. once stated, “A man who won’t die for something is not fit to live.” Arrested over twenty times, stabbed in the chest, his house firebombed and, ultimately shot and killed, King embodied the idea that equality and the African American Civil Rights Movement were worth dying for. He was a husband and father to four … Read More

Geo-Joint: Proving the Depths of Hranicka Propast

Snorkelers can see a lot of great stuff, because the water over coral reefs often isn’t that deep. But to really get down into what the undersea has to offer, it’s going to take some scuba gear and the know-how to utilize it properly and safely. If you’re just in it for recreation, 130 feet is about the limit. Technical … Read More

Geo-Joint: Drawing the Karman Line

If you live on the coast, the air is thick. It doesn’t feel like that, but at sea level you’re at the bottom of a sea of air. The gases of the atmosphere there are under the weight of the maximum column of overlying air. Thus they are pressed together more densely than at higher elevation. This barometric pressure is … Read More

Geo-Joint: Mysteries and Danger on the Plain of Jars

There must have been something in the minds of all early peoples. You just know they sat around the campfire, trading stories and plotting, scheming, and planning on how to create sizeable stone displays that would drive their distant progeny nuts trying to figure out just exactly what the heck they were up to. The Easter Island moai, the pyramids, … Read More

Geo-Joint: Gaining Ground in the Maldives

The Maldive Islands are a string of tropical beauty southwest of India, stretching for over 500 miles. The ridge that forms the base of the country’s 22 atolls was built up from the ocean floor in much the same way as were the Hawaiian Islands. A hotspot that now rests far away under Reunion Island, east of Madagascar, fed enough … Read More